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Non-invasive monitoring of cardiac contractility: Trans-radial electrical bioimpedance velocimetry (TREV) (Stump et al., 2023)

We describe methods and software resources for a bioimpedance measurement technique, ‘trans-radial electrical bioimpedance velocimetry’ (TREV) that allows for the non-invasive monitoring of relative cardiac contractility and stroke volume. After reviewing the relationship between the measurement and cardiac contractility, we describe the general recording methodology, which requires impedance measurements of the forearm. We provide open-source Jupyter-based software (operable on most computers) for deriving cardiac contractility from the impedance measurements. The software includes tools for removing variance associated with heart rate and respiration. We demonstrate the ability of this bioimpedance measurement for tracking beat-to-beat changes of contractility in a maximal grip force production task.

Habituation of the stress response multiplex to repeated cold pressor exposure (Bullock et al., 2023)

Humans show remarkable habituation to aversive events as reflected by changes of both subjective report and objective measures of stress. Although much experimental human research focuses on the effects of stress, relatively little is known about the cascade of physiological and neural responses that contribute to stress habituation. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a common method for inducing acute stress in human participants in the laboratory; however, there are gaps in our understanding of the global state changes resulting from this stress-induction technique and how these responses change over multiple exposures. Here, we measure the stress response to repeated CPT exposures using an extensive suite of physiologic measures and state-of-the-art analysis techniques.

The persistence of value-driven attention capture is task-dependent (Milner, MacLean, & Giesbrecht, 2022)

Visual features previously associated with reward can capture attention even when task- irrelevant, a phenomenon known as value-driven attention capture (VDAC). VDAC persists without reinforcement, unlike other forms of learning, where removing reinforcement typically leads to extinction. In five experiments, factors common to many studies were manipulated to examine their impact on VDAC and its extinction. All experiments included learning and test phases. During learning, participants completed a visual search task during which one of two target colors was associated with a reward, and the other with no reward. During test, one week later, participants completed another visual search task in which the reward association was not reinforced. 

Investigating Search Among Physical and Virtual Objects Under Different Lighting Conditions (Kim et al., 2022)

By situating computer-generated content in the physical world, mobile augmented reality (AR) can support many tasks that involve effective search and inspection of physical environments. Here, we conducted a wide-area outdoor AR user study using a commercially available AR headset o compare (1) user interactions with physical and virtual objects in the environment (2) the effects of different lighting conditions on user behavior and AR experience and (3) the impact of varying cognitive load on AR task performance. Participants engaged in a treasure hunt task where they searched for and classified virtual target items (green “gems”) in an augmented outdoor courtyard scene populated with physical and virtual objects. Cognitive load was manipulated so that in half the search trials users were required to monitor an audio stream and respond to specific target sounds. 

Learned feature regularities enable suppression of spatially overlapping stimuli (Thayer et al., 2022)

Contemporary theories of attentional control state that information can be prioritized based on selection history. Even though theories agree that selection history can impact representations of spatial location, which in turn helps guide attention, there remains disagreement on whether nonspatial features (e.g., color) are modulated in a similar way. While previous work has demonstrated color suppression using visual search tasks, it is possible that the location corresponding to the distractor was suppressed, consistent with a spatial mechanism of suppression. Here, we sought to rule out this possibility by testing whether similar suppression of a learned distractor color can occur for spatially overlapping visual stimuli.

Tracking the Contents of Spatial Working Memory during an Acute Bout of Aerobic Exercise (Garrett, Bullock, & Giesbrecht, 2021)

Recent studies have reported enhanced visual responses during acute bouts of physical exercise, suggesting that sensory systems may become more sensitive during active exploration of the environment. This raises the possibility that exercise may also modulate brain activity associated with other cognitive functions, like visual working memory, that rely on patterns of activity that persist beyond the initial sensory evoked response. Here, we investigated whether the neural coding of an object location held in memory is modulated by an acute bout of aerobic exercise. 

Graph of ERP waveforms for first feature publication

All Publications


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Giesbrecht, B. & Garrett, J. (2024). Electroencephalography. In Encyclopedia of the Human Brain 2nd Edition. [pdf].

Boone, A. P., Bullock, T., MacLean, M. H., Santander, T., Raymer J., Stuber A., Jimmons L., Okafor G. N., Grafton, S. T., Miller, M. B., Giesbrecht, B., & Hegarty, M. (2024). Resilience of navigation strategy and efficiency to the impact of acute stress. Spatial Cognition & Computation, 24(1)1-32. [pdf]. 

Stump, A., Gregory, C., Babenko, V., Rizor, E., Bullock, T., Macy, A., Giesbrecht, B., Grafton, S. T., & Dundon, N. M. (2023). Non-invasive monitoring of cardiac contractility: Trans-radial electrical bioimpedance velocimetry (TREV). Psychophysiology, e14411. [pdf]

Bullock, T., Pickett, K., Salimian, A., Gregory, C., MacLean, M. H., & Giesbrecht, B. (2023). Eye movements disrupt EEG alpha-band coding of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant spatial locations held in working memory. Journal of Neurophysiology, 129, 1191-1211. [pdf]

Nakuci J, Wasylyshyn N, Cieslak M, Elliott JC, Bansal K, Giesbrecht B, Grafton ST, Vettel JM, Garcia JO, Muldoon SF. (2023). Within-subject reproducibility varies in multi-modal, longitudinal brain networks. Scientific Reports, 13: 6699. [pdf]

Thayer, D. D., Miller, M., Giesbrecht, B., & Sprague, T. C. (2023). Learned feature regularities enable suppression of spatially overlapping stimuli. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 85, 767-784. [pdf]

Milner, A. E., MacLean, M. H., & Giesbrecht, B. (2023). The persistence of value-driven attention capture is task-dependent. Attention, perception & psychophysics, 85(2), 315–341. [pdf].

Kumaran, R., Kim, Y. J., Milner, A., Bullock, T., Giesbrecht, B., & Höllerer, T. The impact of navigation aids on search performance and object recall in wide-area augmented reality. Proceedings of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Article 710, pp. 1-17. [pdf].

Bullock, T., MacLean, M. H., Santander, T., Boone, A. P., Babenko, V., Dundon, N. M., Stuber, A., Jimmons, L., Raymer, J., Okafor, G. N., Miller, M. B., Giesbrecht, B., & Grafton, S. T. (2023). Habituation of the stress response multiplex to repeated cold pressor exposure. Frontiers in physiology13, 752900. [pdf].

Kim, Y. J., Kumaran, R., Sayyad, E., Milner, A., Bullock, T., Giesbrecht, B., & Höllerer, T. (2022). Investigating Search Among Physical and Virtual Objects Under Different Lighting Conditions. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 28(11), 3788-3798. [pdf].

Thayer, D. D., Miller, M., Giesbrecht, B., & Sprague, T. C. (2022). Learned feature regularities enable suppression of spatially overlapping stimuli. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 1-16. [pdf].

Bullock, T., Giesbrecht, B., Beaudin, A. E., Goodyear, B. G., & Poulin, M. J. (2021). Effects of changes in end-tidal PO2 and PCO2 on neural responses during rest and sustained attention. Physiological Reports, 9(21). doi:10.14814/phy2.15106. [pdf]

Garrett, J., Bullock, T., & Giesbrecht, B. (2021). Tracking the Contents of Spatial Working Memory during an Acute Bout of Aerobic Exercise. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 33(7), 1271-1286. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_01714. [pdf]

Meghdadi, A. H., Giesbrecht, B., & Eckstein, M. P. (2021). EEG signatures of contextual influences on visual search with real scenes. Experimental Brain Research, 239(3), 797-809. doi:10.1101/2020.10.08.332247. [pdf]

Teich, E. G., Cieslak, M., Giesbrecht, B., Vettel, J. M., Grafton, S. T., Satterthwaite, T. D., & Bassett, D. S. (2021). Crystallinity characterization of white matter in the human brain. New Journal of Physics, 23(7), 073047. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/ac1286. [pdf]

Welbourne, L. E., Jonnalagadda, A., Giesbrecht, B., & Eckstein, M. P. (2021). The transverse occipital sulcus and intraparietal sulcus show neural selectivity to object-scene size relationships. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1-14. doi:10.1038/s42003-021-02294-9. [pdf]

Cieslak, M., Cook, P. A., He, X., et al. (2021). QSIPrep: an integrative platform for preprocessing and reconstructing diffusion MRI data. Nature methods, 18(7), 775-778. doi:10.1038/s41592-021-01185-5. [pdf].

Kumar, S., Iftekhar, A. S. M., Goebel, et al. (2021). StressNet: detecting stress in thermal videos. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (pp. 999-1009). [pdf].

Gobel, M. S., & Giesbrecht, B. (2020). Social information rapidly prioritizes overt but not covert attention in a joint spatial cueing task. Acta Psychologica, 211, 103188. [pdf]

Lauharatanahirun, N., Bansal, K., Thurman, S. M., Vettel, J. M., Giesbrecht, B., Grafton, S., ... & Garcia, J. O. (2020). Flexibility of brain regions during working memory curtails cognitive consequences to lack of sleep. arXiv preprint: 2009.07233. [pdf]

MacLean, M. H., Bullock, T. W., & Giesbrecht, B. (2019) Dual-process coding of recalled locations in human oscillatory brain activity. Journal of Neuroscience, 39, 6737-6750. [pdf]

Pun, M, Guadagni, V., Drogos, L. L., Pon, C., Hartmann, S. E., Furian, M., Lichtblau, M., Muralt, L., Bader, P. R., Moraga, F. A., Soza, D., Lopez, I., Rawling, J. W., Ulrich, S., Bloch, K.E., Giesbrecht, B.,  Poulin, M. J. (2019). Cognitive effects of repeated acute exposure to very high-altitude among altitude-experienced workers at 5050m. High Altitude Medicine & Biology. [pdf]

Pun, M, Guadagni, V., Bettauer, K. M., Drogos, L. L., Aitken, J., Hartmann, S. E., Furian, M., Muralt, L., Lichtblau, M., Bader, P. R., Rawling, J. W., Protzner, A. B., Ulrich, S., Bloch, K.E., Giesbrecht, B.,  Poulin, M. J. (2018). Effects on cognitive functioning of acute, subacute, and repeated exposures to high altitude. Frontiers in Physiology, 9:1131. [pdf]

Thurman, S. M., Wasylyshun, N., Roy, H., Lieberman, G., Garcia, J. O., Asturias, A., Okafor, G. N., Elliott, J. C., Giesbrecht, B., Grafton. S. T., Mednick, S. C., Vettel, J. M. 2018. Individual differences in compliance and agreement for sleep logs and wrist actigraphy: A longitudinal study of naturalistic sleep in healthy adults. PLoS One, 13(1): e0191883. [pdf]


Bullock, T. W., Elliott, J. C., Serences, J. T., & Giesbrecht, B. (2017). Acute exercise modulates feature-selective responses in human cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29, 605-618. [pdf]

Elliott, J. C., Baird, B., & Giesbrecht, B. (2016). Consciousness isn’t all-or-none: Evidence for partial awareness during the attentional blink. Consciousness & Cognition, 40, 79-85. [pdf].

MacLean, M. H., Diaz, G. K., & Giesbrecht, B. (2016). Irrelevant learned reward associations disrupt voluntary spatial attention. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 2241-2252. [pdf]

Bullock, T. W., Cecotti, H., & Giesbrecht, B. (2015). Multiple stages of information processing are modulated during acute bouts of exercise. Neuroscience, 307, 138-150. [pdf]

Elliott, J. C. & Giesbrecht, B. (2015). Distractor suppression when attention fails: Behavioral evidence for a flexible selective attention mechanism. PLoS One, 10(4), e126203. [pdf]

Kasper, R. W., Grafton, S. T., Eckstein, M. P., & Giesbrecht, B. (2015). Multimodal neuroimaging evidence linking memory and attention systems during visual search cued by context. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. [pdf]

MacLean, M. H. & Giesbrecht, B. (2015). Neural evidence reveals the rapid effects of reward history on selective attention.Brain Research, 1606, 86-94. [pdf]

MacLean, M. H. & Giesbrecht, B. (2015). Irrelevant reward and selection histories have different influences on task relevant attentional selection. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77, 1515-1528. [pdf]

Bullock, T. W. & Giesbrecht, B. (2014). Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 1290. [pdf]

Cecotti, H., Eckstein, M. P., Giesbrecht, B. (2014). Single-trial classification of event-related potentials in rapid serial visual presentation tasks using supervised spatial filtering. IEEE Neural Networks and Learning Systems, 25, 2030-2042. [pdf]

Sy, J. L., Guerin, S. A., Stegman, A., & Giesbrecht, B. (2014). Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8: 334. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Sy, J. L., Bundesen, C., & Kyllingsbæk, S. (2014). A new perspective on the perceptual selectivity of attention under load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1316, 71-86. [pdf]

Elliott, J. C., Wallace, B. A., & Giesbrecht, B. (2014). A week-long meditation retreat decouples behavioral measures of the alerting and executive attention networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 69 (9 pages). doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00069. [pdf]

Kasper, R. W., Cecotti, H., Touryan, J., Eckstein, M. P., & Giesbrecht, B. (2014). Isolating the neural mechanisms of interference during continuous multisensory dual-task performance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 476-489. Epub 2013 Sep 18. [pdf]

Sy, J. L., Elliott, J. C., & Giesbrecht, B. (2013). Post-perceptual processing during the attentional blink is modulated by inter-trial task expectancies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 627, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00627. [pdf]

Brown, K. S., Kasper, R. W., Giesbrecht, B., Carlson, J. M., & Grafton, S. T. (2013). Reproducible paired sources from concurrent EEG-fMRI data using BICAR. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 219, 205-219. [pdf]

Preston, T., Guo, F., Das, K., Giesbrecht, B., & Eckstein, M. P. (2013). Neural representations of contextual guidance in visual search of real-world scenes. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 7846-7855. [pdf].

Giesbrecht, B., Sy, J. L., & Guerin, S. A. (2012). Both memory and attention systems contribute to visual search for targets cued by implicit context. Vision Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2012.10.006. [pdf]

Guo, F., Preston, T., Das, K. Giesbrecht, B., Eckstein, M. P. (2012). Feature-independent neural coding of target detection during search of natural scenes. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 9499-9510. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5876-11.2012. [pdf]

Kasper, R. W., Elliott, J. C., & Giesbrecht, B. (2012). Multiple measures of visual attention predict novice motor skill performance when attention is focused externally. Human Movement Science, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2011.11.005. [pdf]

Eckstein, M. P., Das, K., Pham, B. T., Peterson, M. F., Abbey, C. K., Sy, J. L., & Giesbrecht, B. (2012). Neural decoding of collective wisdom with multi-brain computing. NeuroImage, 59, 94-108. [pdf]

Ristic, J. & Giesbrecht, B. (2011). Electrophysiological evidence for spatiotemporal flexibility in the ventrolateral attention network. PLoS One, 6, e24436. [pdf]

Kyllingsbaek, S, Sy, J. L., Giesbrecht, B. (2011). Understanding the allocation of attention when faced with varying perceptual load in partial report: A computational approach. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1487-1497. [pdf]

Smallwood, J., Brown, K. S., Tipper, C. M., Giesbrecht, B., Franklin, M. S., Mrazek, M. D., Carlson, J. M., & Schooler, J. W. (2011). Pupillometric evidence for the decoupling of attention from perceptual input during offline thought. PLoS One, 6, e18298. [pdf]

Peterson, M. F., Das, K., Sy, J. L., Li, S., Giesbrecht, B., Kourtzi, Z., Eckstein, M. P. (2010). Ideal observer analysis for task normalization of pattern classifier performance applied to EEG and fMRI data. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 27, 2670-2683. [pdf]

Elliott, J. C. & Giesbrecht, B. (2010). Perceptual load modulates the processing of distractors presented at task-irrelevant locations during the attentional blink. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72, 2106-2114. [pdf]

Kasper, R., Das, K., Eckstein, M. P., Giesbrecht, B. (2010). Decoding information processing when attention fails: An electrophysiological approach. In T. Marek, W. Karwowski, & V. Rice (Eds), Advances in Understanding Human Performance: Neuroergonomics, Human Factors, and Special Populations. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. [pdf]

Das, K., Li, S., Giesbrecht, B., Kourtzi, Z., Eckstein, M. P. (2010). Predicting perceptual performance from neural activity. In T. Marek, W. Karwowski, & V. Rice (Eds), Advances in Understanding Human Performance: Neuroergonomics, Human Factors, and Special Populations. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. [pdf]

Das, K., Giesbrecht, B., & Eckstein, M. P. (2010). Predicting variations of perceptual performance across individuals from neural activity using pattern classifiers. NeuroImage, 51, 1425-1437. [pdf]

Sy, J. L. & Giesbrecht, B. (2009). Target-target similarity and the attentional blink: Task-relevance matters! Visual Cognition, 17, 307-317. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B, Sy, J. L., & Lewis, M. K. (2009). Personal names do not always survive the attentional blink: Behavioral evidence for a flexible locus of selection. Vision Research, 49, 1378-1388. [pdf]

Das, K., Zhang, S., Giesbrecht, B., Eckstein, M. P. (2009). Using rapid visually evoked EEG activity for person identification. Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1, 2490-2493. [pdf]

Gillath, O., Giesbrecht, B., & Shaver, P. R. (2009). Attachment, attention, and cognitive-control: Attachment style and performance on general attention tasks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 647-654. [pdf]

Kelley, T. A., Serences, J.T., Giesbrecht, B., & Yantis, S. (2008). Cortical mechanisms for shifting and holding visuospatial attention. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 114-125. [pdf]

Tipper, C. M., Handy, T. C., Giesbrecht, B., & Kingstone, A. (2008). Brain responses to biological relevance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 879-891. [pdf]

Slagter, H. A., Giesbrecht, B., Kok, A., Weissman, D. H., Kenemans, J. L., Woldorff, M. G., & Mangun, G. R. (2007). fMRI evidence for both generalized and specialized components of attentional control. Brain Research, 1177, 90-102. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Sy, J. L., & Elliott, J. C. (2007). Electrophysiological evidence for both perceptual and post-perceptual selection during the attentional blink. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 2005-2018. [pdf]

van Zoest, W., Giesbrecht, B., Enns, J. T., & Kingstone, A. (2006). New reflections on visual search: Inter-item symmetry matters! Psychological Science, 17, 535-542. [pdf]

Slagter, H. A., Weissman, D. H., Giesbrecht, B., Kenemans, J. L., Mangun, G. R., Kok, A., & Woldorff, M. G. (2006). Brain regions activated by endogenous preparatory set-shifting as revealed by fMRI. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 6, 175-189. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Weissman, D. H., Woldorff, M. G., & Mangun (2006). Pre-target activity in visual cortex predicts behavioral performance on spatial and feature attention tasks. Brain Research, 1080, 63-72. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Kingstone, A., Handy, T. C., Hopfinger, J. B., & Mangun, G. R. (2006). Functional neuroimaging of attention. In A. Kingstone & R. Cabeza (Eds.), Handbook on Functional Neuroimaging of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Giesbrecht, B. & Mangun, G. R. (2005). Identifying the neural systems of top-down attentional control: A meta-analytical approach. In L. Itti, G. Rees, & J. Tsotsos (Eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. New York: Academic Press/Elsevier. [pdf]

German, T. P., Niehaus, J. L., Roarty, M. P., Giesbrecht, B., & Miller, M. B. (2004). Neural correlates of detecting pretense: Automatic engagement of the intentional stance under covert conditions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1805-1817. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Bischof, W. F., & Kingstone, A. (2004). Seeing the light: Adapting luminance reveals low-level visual processes in the attentional blink. Brain & Cognition, 55, 307-309. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Bischof, W. F., & Kingstone, A. (2003). Visual masking during the attentional blink: Tests of the object substitution hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 29, 238-258. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Camblin, C. C., Swaab, T. Y. (2004). Separable effects of semantic priming and imageability on word processing in human cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 521-529. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B. & Di Lollo, V. (1998).  Beyond the attentional blink:  Visual masking by object substitution.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1454-1456. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., Dixon P., & Kingstone, A. (2001). Cued shifts of attention and memory encoding in partial report: A dual-task approach. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology - Section A, 54, 695-725. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B. & Dixon P. (1999).  Isolating the interference caused by cue duration in partial report: A quantitative approach.  Memory & Cognition, 27, 220-233. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., & Kingstone, A. (2004). Right hemisphere involvement in the attentional blink: Evidence from a split-brain patient. Brain & Cognition, 55, 303-306. [pdf]

Giesbrecht, B., & Mangun, G. R. (2002). The neural mechanisms of top-down control. In H.-O. Karnath, D. Milner, & G. Vallar (Eds.), The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Giesbrecht, B., Woldorff, M. G., Song, A. W., & Mangun, G. R. (2003). Neural mechanisms of top-down control during spatial and feature attention. NeuroImage, 19, 496-512. [pdf]

McFadden, S. M., Giesbrecht, B. L., & Gula, C. (1998).  Use of an automatic tracker as a function of its reliability.  Ergonomics, 41, 512-536. [pdf]

Weissman, D. H., Giesbrecht, B., Song. A. W., Mangun, G. R., & Woldorff, M. G. (2003). Conflict monitoring in the human anterior cingulate cortex during selective attention to global and local object features. NeuroImage, 19, 1361-1368. [pdf]